The curriculum approaches reflect the developer’s philosophy, view of reality, history, psychology, social issues and the domains of knowledge. Analysis of an approach provides information about personal and collective commitments to a particular viewpoint and the values deemed important by individuals, school and society.
1. TECHNICAL-SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
The curriculum developers which may include specialists, superintendents, principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-sequenced procedures and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation
2. BEHAVIORAL-RATIONAL APPROACH
It is a means-end approach. Curricula developed through this approach become the actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process. Viewing the curricula as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation
3. SYSTEMS-MANAGERIAL APPROACH
Motivate interest of all stakeholders. Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders. Synthesize divergent viewpoints. Monitor curriculum implementation. Create a climate of innovation and change.
4. INTELLECTUAL-ACADEMIC APPROACH
It emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. This model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey.
5. NON-TECHNICAL/NON-SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
Flexible and less structured without pre-determined objectives to guide the learning-teaching process. Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed to be known in all cases.
6. HUMANISTIC-AESTHETIC APPROACH
It argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal aspects of curriculum and instruction. It is rooted in progressive philosophy which promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers.
7. RECONCEPTUALIST APPROACH
It criticizes the technocratic-scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings and experience of individuals. It reflects on existentialist orientation. The aim of education is not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order.
The school is an institution of social reform. It criticizes the progressivists for putting too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society.
9. ECLECTIC MODEL
Oftentimes, Filipino educators, in particular, prefer eclectic models (halo-halo) which are a combination of several approaches, rather than commit themselves to one particular approach only. Eclectic models are not mere patchwork (pagtagpi-tagpi) but a synthesis (pagbuo o paghahabi) where desired features from several models are selected and integrated into a new whole.